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Blackberry Wine
A Novel
By Joanne Harris

Blackberry Wine By Joanne Harris | Red Wines

Jay Mackintosh is uninspired. After penning his first and only successful novel, Jackapple Joe, he has faded into obscurity. His ambitious girlfriend tries mercilessly to goad him towards a new literary endeavor, but nothing seems to stir him.

Then, one spring day, he finds himself thinking back to his summers with Joe, the crusty, magical old man who was the inspiration for his novel. Joe lived in a ramshackle house near an unused railroad line, where he cultivated a lush and almost jungle-like garden. At the time, Jay was a lonely, bored kid, and Joe adopted him and kept him spellbound with stories of his adventures, and the lore of the charms he used to help grow his flowers, vines and trees.

This strong wave of nostalgia drives Jay into his cellar, where he dusts off six bottles of Specials — Joe’s potent homemade fruit wine. The wine, it seems, has a life of its own, and once Jay breaks the wax seal around the neck of one bottle, his life is changed. A sudden epiphany leads to a permanent change, and he impulsively decides to buy an old farm in France that reminds him of Joe’s long ago home.

Moving to the small town of Lansquenet in the French countryside, he begins to cultivate his garden and rebuild the run-down farm. Slowly he is welcomed by his colorful neighbors, including the secretive, strong-willed Marise, who lives on the farm next to his. When the sun goes down each night, he retires to a candelit room where he feverishly spins the lives of the villagers into a new novel. As the novel progresses, Joe begins to appear to him, gently coaxing Jay to embrace a life that feeds his soul, and to challenge the very foundation upon which he has built his life.

Discussion Questions

1. Compare Kerry and Jay’s relationship to Marise and Tony’s relationship. In what way are they similar? If they don’t satisfy each other romantically, what other needs might the relationships fill?

2. “Wine talks; ask anyone…. It has a million voices. It unleashes the tongue…. It revives summers long past and memories best forgotten” (pg 1). Does this statement resonate for you? If so, how? How does it relate to the Specials? Are there other instances in the novel in which food or wine play an active role in guiding a character’s actions?

3. What qualities made Joe so appealing to Jay? Jay felt betrayed; was his anger justified? What was Joe attempting to teach Jay about reality, about everyday life? Did Jay ever learn this lesson?

4. Discuss the presence-or lack thereof-of nature in Jay’s life, and how it affects his state of mind. What-if anything-is the author saying about country living versus city living?

5. Why did Jay have to destroy his new manuscript before beginning a new life? Why was it important for Jay to finally plant Joe’s “Specials” seeds?

About the Author: Joanne Harris is the author of the critically acclaimed novels Blackberry Wine, Five Quarters of the Orange, and Chocolat, which was nominated for the Whitbread Award, one of Britain’s most prestigious literary prizes. Half French and half British, Harris lives in England.


Blueberries | Red Wines
You can also use these recipes using Saskatoon Berries, Bilberries or Cranberries in place of the Blueberries.


Blueberry Wine

* 4 to 5 cups blueberries
* 5 cups granulated sugar
* 2 teaspoon acid blend
* 1/2 tsp pectic enzyme
* 1 teaspoon nutrients
* 2 campden tablet
* 1 package wine yeast
* water

Blueberry Port

* 6 pounds (12 cups) blueberries
* 1/2 cup Dry malt
* 4 cups granulated sugar
* 1/2 teaspoon acid blend
* 1/2 teaspoon pectic enzyme
* 1 teaspoon yeast nutrient
* 2 campden tablet
* 1 package Sherry or Port yeast
* water

1. Crush the fruit. Add 12 cups of water and all other ingredients except the yeast. Stir well to dissolve sugar. Let sit overnight.
2. Specific gravity should be between 1.090 and 1.095. Sprinkle yeast over the mixture and stir. Stir daily for five days.
3. Strain the must and squeeze the juice out. Siphon into secondary fermentor, add water to make up volume and attach airlock.
4. For a dry wine, rack in three weeks, and every three months for one year. Bottle.
NOTE: You must finish wine dry if making Port.
5. For a sweet wine, rack at three weeks. Add 1/2 cup sugar dissolved in 1 cup wine. Stir gently, and place back into secondary fermentor. 6.

Repeat process every six weeks until fermentation does not restart with the addition of sugar. Rack every three months until one year old.


- The wine is best if you can refrain from drinking it for one full year from the date it was started.
- Age all wines one year or more.


If desired, 1 cup red grape concentrate may be added to the Blueberry Wine at the time of bottling for a fuller flavour. If used, also add 1/2 teaspoon Stabilizer to prevent restarting fermentation.


Blueberry Wine, A Wine for All Seasons

Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) - Latin for blueberry

Blueberry Wine | Red WinesAlthough grapes grow throughout the world, the winter weather in western Massachusetts is severe by any standard. Vinifera grapes, i.e. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, etc. cannot grow at our elevation (1,370′ above sea level). French hybrid grapes, i.e. Seyval Blanc or Vidal Blanc, may grow but we haven’t tried. But blueberries grow here in abundance. They grow wild and are also cultivated within a five mile radius around the winery. Blueberry wine can be made in a variety of product styles. The wine can be made dry or sweet, still or effervescent, light or strong, and all of it is delicious.

Blueberries are indigenous to North America. They have been a part of the American tradition since the pilgrims. The Native Americans associated the blueberry, or “starberry” (just look at the star design on the bottom of one) with the Great Spirit. It was thought that “starberries” were sent to Earth to end a period of famine. Wild blues were eaten fresh in Summer and dried or made into a paste for medicine, food, teas, juice, syrup and dye in the Winter.

We don’t know for a fact, but we can hope that blueberries were served at the first Thanksgiving at the other end of Massachusetts. We like to think they may have served blueberry wine.

At Thanksgiving, drink Blueberry Wine…
An American Wine For An American Tradition.


Koren Raspberry Wine | Red WinesIf you ever wondered how grapes can ferment into something that tastes totally unlike grapes, get this: a Korean black raspberry wine that tastes just like grapes.

Smells just like Hi-C, or Welches Grape Soda, or even grapes. Go figure.

It’s absolutely cheap, cost around $4.50.

Raspberry Wine | Red Wines

March 4th, 2008

Raspberry Wine | Red WinesThe red-fruited raspberry is one of about a dozen or so varieties of the raspberry species native to the United States and Canada. Raspberries belong to the rubus genus, of which there are 300-400 species in the temperate regions of the world. The botanical name is Rubus strigosus, but it’s commonly called the red raspberry. It is found throughout the U.S. Rocky Mountain states, the midwest and New England, and throughout Canada south of the Artic circle. It can most often be found along the margins of woodlands, streambeds, clearings, roadsides, and abandoned fields. The plant forms a subshrub to 2 meters high, with canes spreading to trailing along the ground. New canes often have a whitish cast, and all are armed with unusually numerous prickles and stiff hairs. The berries form from white to greenish-white flowers that grow in clusters of 2-5 along the upper reaches of the canes in June and July. The berries are globular in shape–or nearly so–and a half-inch to nearly an inch in size and turn from light green to rose, then bright red, ripening from July to September. When ripe, the berries are juicy, separate easily from their stalk, and are very popular among birds and other wildlife.

Red raspberries make a fragrant, subtle wine. It should be made dry so that a subtle hint of tartness carries its distinctive flavor to the sides of the tongue as it is sipped, chilled. The recipes below make one gallon each. If you make two, you can combine the pressed pulp and make a “second” wine which, although weaker, will still be acceptable.


* 3-4 lbs fresh red raspberries
* 2-1/4 lbs finely granulated sugar
* 1/2 tsp acid blend
* 1/2 tsp pectic enzyme
* 1/8 tsp grape tannin
* 7-1/2 pints water
* 1 tsp yeast nutrient
* 1 crushed Campden tablet
* Champagne wine yeast

Pick only ripe berries. Combine water and sugar and put on to boil, stirring occasionally. Wash and destem berries. Put in nylon straining bag, tie, put in botton of primary, and crush berries in bag. Pour boiling sugar-water over berries to set the color and extract the flavorful juice. Add acid blend, tannin and yeast nutrient. Allow to cool to 70 degrees F. and add crushed Campden tablet. Cover primary with plasticwrap secured with a large rubber band. Add pectic enzyme after 12 hours and wine yeast after additional 12 hours, resecuring plastic wrap eachtime. Stir daily for a week, replacing plastic wrap if it looks like it needs it. Remove nylon bag and allow to drip drain about an hour,keeping primary covered as before. Do not squeeze bag. Return drippings to primary and use bag of pulp for “second” wine if you made a doublerecipe (combine bags, but only make one gallon of “second” wine). Continue fermentation in primary another week, stirring daily. Rack to secondary, top up with water and fit airlock. Use a dark secondary or wrap with brown paper (from paper bag) to preserve color. Ferment additional 2 months, then rack into clean secondary. Refit airlock and rack after additional 2 months. Wait another 2 months, rack again and bottle into dark glass. Drink after one year. This is an excellent dry wine, but don’t rush it! You must ferment the full 6 months and age another year. Serve chilled. The “second” wine uses the same recipe, but without the Campden tablet or pectic enzyme–and the sugar water MUST be cooled before pouring over fruit or you will kill the yeast still in the fruit. [Adapted from Terry Garey’s The Joy of Home Winemaking]


* 2-1/2 lbs ripe red raspberries
* 2-1/2 lbs granulated sugar
* 1 tsp acid blend
* 1/2 tsp pectic enzyme
* 1/4 tannin
* 7-2/3 pints boiling water
* 1 crushed Campden tablet
* 1 tsp yeast nutrient
* wine yeast

Use only sound ripe berries. Wash and destem berries. Crush berries and put all ingredients except yeast in primary. Pour boiling water over ingredients and stir well to dissolve sugar. Cover with plastic wrap until cooled to 70-75 degrees F. Add yeast, recover, and stir daily 5-6 days or until S.G. drops to 1.040. Strain out fruit pulp and press to extract juice. If you make a double recipe, the pressed pulp can be used to make a “second” wine (use pulp from two batches, but only make 1 gal. “second” wine). Siphon off sediments into secondary, top up, fit airlock, and set in dark, cooler (60-65 degrees F.) place. Rack in 3 weeks and agin in 3 months. Rack again and bottle when clear. Store in dark place to preserve color. Age one year. For “second” wine, use pulp form 2 batches and rest of recipe above, but without the Campden tablet or pectic enzyme–and the sugar water MUST be cooled before pouring over fruit or you will kill the yeast still in the fruit. Also age “second” wine one year. [Adapted from Stanley F. Anderson and Raymond Hull’s The Art of Making Wine]


Amethysts Wine Glass | Red WinesThe ancient Greeks loved wine and were always searching for ways to drink without getting drunk. They finally came up with what they thought was the antidote to the downside of Dionysus: drinking purple wine from a purple vessel made of semi-precious stone would cause the two purples to cancel each other out and negate whatever was in the wine that caused drunkeness.

In Greek, the prefix a means “not,” methyein means “drunk” (from methy-wine), so the work for “not drunk” became the name of the purple stone the vessel was made out of - amethyst.

Taken from Cuisine and Culture

Fetească Neagră | Red WinesFetească Neagră (IPA: [fe.’teas.kə ‘nea.grə]) is an old pre-phylloxeric variety of grape, indigenous to Romania. It is grown in several areas in the Romanian regions of Moldavia and Muntenia.

These grapes produce dry, semi-dry or sweet wines, with an alcohol content of 12-12.5%, a deep red colour with ruby shades, and a black currant flavour, which becomes richer and smoother with aging.

In Hungary, it is called Fekete Leányka and it is grown from a variety originating from Transylvania.


Grenache | Red Wines

March 3rd, 2008

Grenache Noir | Red WinesGrenache (pronounced gren-ash) (in Spanish, Garnacha, in Catalan, Garnatxa) is probably the most widely planted variety of red wine grape in the world. It ripens late, so needs hot, dry conditions such as those found in Spain and in the south of France. It is generally spicy, berry-flavoured and soft on the palate with a relatively high alcohol content, but it needs careful control of yields for best results. It tends to lack acid, tannin and colour, and is usually blended with other varieties such as Syrah, Carignan and Cinsaut.

Grenache is the dominant variety in most Southern Rhône wines, especially in Châteauneuf-du-Pape where it is typically over 80% of the blend. In Australia it is typically blended in “GSM” blends with Syrah and Mourvèdre.

Grenache is also used to make rosé wines in France and Spain, notably those of the Tavel district in the Côtes du Rhône. And the high sugar levels of Grenache have led to extensive use in fortified wines, including the red vins doux naturels of Roussillon such as Banyuls, and as the basis of most Australian ‘port’.

Species: Vitis vinifera
Also called: Alicante, Cannonau, Garnacha (more)
Origin: Spain
Notable regions: Rhône, Sardinia, Spain


Grenache may have originated in Spain, probably in Aragon or Catalonia, but has since spread over the Pyrenees into southern France and the rest of the Mediterranean. It is the same grape variety as Cannonau which is claimed to originate in Sardinia. This might imply that it is really from Sardinia, and was imported to Spain when Sardinia was under Aragón rule.

Clones, mutants and crosses

Like the Pinot family, Grenache comes in ‘black’, ‘grey’ and ‘white’ versions, plus a mutant with an altered epidermis.

The standard “black Grenache” is known as “Garnatxa Fina” in Catalan, and is the most common version.

The “hairy Grenache” is also known by names such as Lladoner Pelud (see below). The leaves look similar to Macabeo, but with fine little hairs. Recent research in Spain into this bizarre clone indicates that is produces smaller berries with a thicker skin, which suggests a greater potential than the original for making fine wine. This is an active area of investigation.

Grenache Gris is widely planted in France in particular, but is declining under the current vine pull schemes.

Grenache blanc is a major variety in its own right, particularly in France, where it is an important component of many white wines from the Rhône. It is often blended with Roussanne.

Grenache Noir was crossed with Petit Bouschet to give Alicante Bouschet, sometimes called Garnacha Tintorera. It was an important grape during Prohibition, as its thick skins survived being transported from Californian vineyards to consumers, who were allowed to make small amounts of wine at home.

In 1961, a cross between Grenache and Cabernet Sauvignon produced the French wine grape Marselan.

Distribution and wines


A clone from Perpignan arrived in Australia with James Busby in 1832 collection. More significant was the introduction into South Australia of new cuttings from the South of France, by Dr Christopher Rawson Penfold in 1844. Plantings in South Australia boomed, particularly in McLaren Vale, the Barossa Valley and Clare Valley. Traditionally much of the production went into a fortified wine sold as ‘port’, but recently interest has turned to unfortified wines either as a single varietal or in “GSM” blends with Shiraz (Syrah) and Mataro (Mourvèdre). These wines are often the product of old vines grown in excellent conditions, and can be very successful.


Grenache can make three very different styles of wine in France, where it is planted on nearly 100,000 hectares in the Rhône valley and across the huge vineyards of Languedoc-Roussillon, where it may be known as Alicante or Carignane Rousse. As a single varietal it makes rosé wines throughout the region, although the most famous are from the Tavel district of the Côtes du Rhône. Grenache is best known for making dry red wines, sometimes as a single varietal but more commonly blended with more chewy grapes such as Cinsault and Mourvèdre. It forms the basis of the red wines of Gigondas and Châteauneuf-du-Pape, where 12 other grapes can be included in the blend. Emmanuel Reynaud of Château Rayas in Chateauneuf du Pape, and Philippe Laurent of Domaine du Gramenon are notable proponents of Grenache as a single varietal.

Grenache is also used in vins doux naturels, sweet fortified wines from French Catalonia. Banyuls is the best known of the red vins doux naturels, but they are also made in Maury and Rivesaltes.


Grenache is known as Cannonau in Sardinia, where it may have originated and is still common.


Garnacha (Garnatxa in Catalan) used to be the most widely planted variety in its homeland of Spain, but has now been surpassed by the fast-expanding Tempranillo. It is still the dominant variety in southern Aragón, particularly in the Cariñena, Calatayud and Campo de Borja appellations. In the famous Catalan wine producing region of Priorat it is traditionally blended with the dominant Carignan. In Terra Alta, just southwest of the Priorat, the blend is often the same but many wineries have been begun to blend it with Cabernet and Syrah.


Grenache is grown in California’s Central Valley.

Vine and viticulture

The vine is upright, with good wind tolerance. Its natural vigour must be controlled for best results. The three-lobed leaves are yellowy-green, with no hairs on the undersurface unless it’s the ‘hairy’ clone mentioned above. The medium-sized bunches are conical and winged, with blue-black berries.

In commercial production, the vine tends to alternate, with one ‘good’ year of production, followed by a ‘lighter’ year whilst it recuperates.


Abundante, Aleante, Aleantedi Rivalto, Aleante Poggiarelli, Alicant Blau, Alicante, Alicante Grenache, Aragones, Bois Jaune, Cannonaddu, Cannonadu Nieddu, Cannonau, Cannonau Selvaggio, Canonazo, Carignane Rosso, Elegante, Francese, Garnaccho Negro, Garnacha Comun, Garnacha Negra, Garnacha Roja, Garnacha Tinta, Garnatxa Negra, Garnatxa Pais, Gironet, Granaccia, Granaxa, Grenache Noir, Grenache Rouge, Kek Grenache, Lladoner, Mencida, Navaro, Navarra, Navarre de la Dordogne, Navarro, Negru Calvese, Ranconnat, Red Grenache, Redondal, Retagliadu Nieddu, Rivesaltes, Rousillon Tinto, Roussillon, Rouvaillard, Sans Pareil, Santa Maria de Alcantara, Tentillo, Tintella, Tintilla, Tinto Aragones, Tinto Menudo, Tinto Navalcarnero, Tocai Rosso, Toledana and Uva di Spagna.

Synonyms for the hairy Grenache include Garnatca Peluda, Garnatxa Pelud, Lladoner Gris, Lladoner Pelud and Lledoner Pelut.


Montalcino | Red WinesBrunello di Montalcino is a red Italian wine produced in the vineyards surrounding the town of Montalcino located about 70 miles southwest of Florence. Brunello is a clone of Sangiovese, a grape used in Chianti. Brunello is one of the best-known (and expensive) wines of Italy. Well-made Brunellos are capable of aging for long periods of time, given their high tannin content.


Montalcino has one of the warmest climates in Tuscany and the grapes in the area ripen up to a week earlier than in nearby Vino Nobile di Montepulciano and Chianti Classico. There are distinct micro-climates among the northern and southern slopes of Montalcino. The northern slopes receive fewer hours of sunlight and are generally cooler than the southern slopes. Vineyards planted on the northern slopes tend to produce wines that are racier and more aromatic, while the southern slopes tend to produce wines with more power and complexity. The top producers in the area have vineyards on both slopes, and make use of a blend of both styles.


Although the modern rules for making Brunello were first laid down by the Biondi Santi family in the late 1880s, the current industry has its roots in the 1960s when there were only a handful of producers. Even as recently as 1975, the total number of producers was approximately 25 vintners producing approximately 70,000 cases of Brunello total. According to the Consorzio di Vini di Brunello di Montalcino, in 1995 120 producers made 300,000 cases. Today there are well over 200 producers in the Consorzio. The production has risen to over 6,000,000 bottles, or 500,000 cases.


Brunello di Montalcino | Red WinesBrunello di Montalcino must be made 100% from the Brunello clone of Sangiovese. Most producers will separate their production between a normale and riserva bottling. The normale bottles are released on the market 50 months after harvest and the riserva are released a year afterward. The current aging requirements were established in 1998 and dictate that Brunellos are to be aged in wood for 2 years and at least 4 months in a bottle before release.

Traditionally, the wines are aged 3 years or so “in botte,” large oak casks that impart little oak flavor but allow for the controlled softening of the wine. Modernists use small barrique which impart a more pronounced oak flavor. There is a middle ground where the wine is aged in small barrique for a short time and then spends a longer sojourn in the traditional botte.

While there are wineries that follow traditional processes and still make dark and rich wines, the reason for this is the conditions of the soils and the micro-climates of the vineyards. This contrasts to winemaking processes that reduce the time in botte or eliminate it entirely, and follow fermentation methods designed to extract more color and tannin from the grapes.


Brunello is often compared with the Pinot noir wines of Burgundy with its smooth tannins and ripe, fruit driven character. The wines are available to be consumed soon after release but generally hit their prime six to eight years after harvest. The wines have good aging ability with some producers regularly making wines that still improve within the bottle for more than 20 years. The high acidity of the wine allows it to pair well with food, especially grilled meat and game. A large portion of Brunello sold in the United States is purchased in restaurants.

Casanova di Neri Tenuta Nuova 2001 Brunello di Montalcino was named Wine Spectator’s 2006 “Wine of the Year”.

Other DOCs

Rosso di Montalcino, is the other main DOC from Montalcino. This wine has few restrictions on aging other than it may not be released prior to September 1 of the year following the vintage. It is required to be 100% Brunello grape grown in a strictly delimited zone within the area of Montalcino. It can range from a soft, easy-to-drink-when-young style to a wine capable of long aging when made by a fine wine estate in a great vintage.


Barolo | Red Wines

March 3rd, 2008

Barolo city | Red Wines
Barolo is an Italian wine, one of many to claim the title “Wine of kings, and king of wines”. It is produced in Cuneo’s province, south-west of Alba, within the region of Piemonte.

It is produced in the communes of Barolo, Castiglione Falletto, Serralunga d’Alba and parts of the communes of Cherasco, Diano d’Alba, Grinzane Cavour, La Morra, Monforte d’Alba, Novello, Roddi, Verduno, all in the province of Cuneo. Only vineyards in the hills with suitable slopes and orientations are considered adapted to production, and the terrains must be primarily clayey-calcareous in character.

The wine is produced from the Nebbiolo grape variety. The Lampia, Michet and Rosé types are authorized. It matures at the end of September. The clusters are dark blue and greyish with the abundant wax that dresses the grapes. Their form is lengthened, pyramidal, with small, spherical grapes with substantial peel. The leaves are of average size with three or five lobes.

Barolo typically smells of tar and roses, and can take on an unusual orange tinge with age. When subjected to aging of at least five years, the wine can be labeled a Riserva. The initial nose of a barolo is often that of the pine tree.

For connoisseurs it is Italy’s most collected wine; for beginners it is a difficult one to understand.

Barolo data



Amount produced

5,000,000 litres

Maximum yield

8000 kg/ha

Maximum yield of wine from grapes


Minimum alcohol level


Minimum total acidity


Minimum net dry extract


Required aging

three years

The “Barolo wars”

In the past all Barolos used to be very tannic and they took more than 10 years to soften up. Fermenting wine sat on the grape skins for at least three weeks, extracting huge amounts of tannins; then it was aged in large, wooden casks for years.

In order to meet the international taste, which preferred fruitier, more accessible styles, the “modernists” cut fermentation times to a maximum of ten days and put the wine in new French barriques (small oak barrels). The results, said traditionalists, were wines that weren’t even recognizable as Barolo and tasted more of new oak than of wine.

The controversies between traditionalists and modernists have been called the Barolo wars.

The war has now subsided. Though outspoken modernists are still committed to new oak, many producers are now choosing the middle ground, often using a combination of barriques and large casks. The more prestigious houses, however, still reject barriques and insist on patience only for their exceptional wines. These are auction staples, sought after by aficionados in Italy, Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the United States.

Traditionalist producers include: Giuseppe Rinaldi, Marcarini, Bartolo Mascarello, Brovia, Giuseppe Mascarello, Giovanni Conterno, Paolo Conterno, Comm. Burlotto, Oddero, Barale, Cavallotto, Massolino, Bruno “the Maestro” Giacosa, Luigi Pira, Vietti (especially the Riserva Villero), Vajra.

Modernist producers include: Scavino, Gigi Rosso, Rivetti, Ceretto, Aldo Conterno (from 1996 onwards), Boglietti, Mauro Veglio, Altare, Sandrone, Domenico Clerico, E. Pira, Einaudi, Icardi, Parusso, Prunotto, Ceretto, Corino, Alessandria, Silvio Grasso, Seghesio (Aldo e Ricardo).

In January 2007, Filippo Bartolotta indicated how a vertical tasting of Barolo, from 1985 to the present “showcased Barolo’s longevity, intense aromatics, freshness, silk-and-cashmere tannins and also highlighted the considerable contrast between production zones”.

Barolo Chinato

The origins of Barolo Chinato date back to the nineteenth century and they are a precious elixir according to the popular culture.

They are aromatic wines that are prepared using Barolo with infusion of China Calissaja bark, rhubarb root, and about ten other aromatic herbs.

Grappa di Barolo

By distilling the residue of wine press of Nebbiolo, it’s possible to obtain grappa, a spirit smooth and mild like the grapes destinated to make Barolo. The distillation makes use of a traditional process with alembic in a bain-marie. This spirit, only just condensed in a refrigerating coil, is a white drink. After ageing in oaks for three years at least, the colour becomes light yellow, slightly amber-coloured, and the taste grows smooth. The right spirituousness is around 45%, because it intensifies the fragrances, the alcohol and the ethers.


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